Garlic is a hardy, bulbous, rooted, perennial plant with narrow flat leaves and bears small white flowers and bulbils. The compound bulb consists of 6 to 34 bulblets called ‘cloves’ which are surrounded by a common, thin, white or pinkish papery sheet. Garlic has a strong flavour and taste.
Origin and Distribution
Garlic is a native of West Asia and Mediterranean area. China, Korea, India, USA, Spain, Argentina and Egypt are the major garlic growing countries. Garlic prefers cool weather and grow in a well-drained, moderately clay loam at higher elevation (900 to 1200 mtrs).
Garlic is used for flavouring various dishes practically all over the world. In United States almost half of the produce is dehydrated for use in mayonnaise products, salad dressings and in several meat preparations. Raw garlic is used in the preparation of garlic powder, garlic salt, garlic vinegar, garlic cheese croutins, garlicked potato chips, garlic bread, garlicked bacon etc. Spray dried garlic products, liquid garlic preparations are other products. In India and other Asian and Middle East Countries, garlic is used in pickles, curry powders, curried vegetables, meat preparations etc. Oil of garlic is used as a flavouring agent in soups, canned foods, sauces etc. The other properties are anti-bacterial, fungicidal and insecticidal. In the area of medicine, it is used for various ailments of stomach, skin diseases. It has wider applications in indigenous medicines and is also considered as highly nutritive.
Indian Name of Spices
Assamese : Naharu Hindi : Lasun, Lessan, Lahsun Bengali : Rashun Gujarati : Lasan Kannada : Bellulli Kashmiri : Ruhan Malayalam : Vellulli Marathi : Lusson Oriya : Rasuna Punjabi : Lassan, Lasun Sanskrit : Lashuna Tamil : Ullipundu, Vellaippundu Telugu : Velluri Urdu : Lassun, Leshun
Foreign Name of Spices
Spanish : Ajo French : Ail German : Knoblanch Swedish : Vitlok Arabic : Thum Dutch : Knoflook Italian : Agilio Portuguese : Alho Russian : Chesnok Japanese : Ninniku Chinese : Suan