Juniper is an evergreen shrub sometimes attaining the height of a small tree up to 3 mtrs with erect trunk and spreading branches, covered with a shreddy bark. The trunk diameter is 25-30 cm. Leaves are straight and rigid, oval shape, about 6-13 mm long and with sharp prickly points. It is dioecious plant. The male and female flowers produced in April and May usually born on separate plants, the male flowers in short catkins and female flowers in small cones. The fleshy berry like fruit is sub-globose, bluish black, dark purple when ripe, 10-13 mm in diameter covered with waxy blook. The three scales comprising fruit, occasionally gaping and exposing bony seeds, usually three, elongated, ovoid, and embedded in the pulp.
Origin and Distribution
The plant grows wild in many parts of Europe and Asia and in North America. In India, it is found in Himalayas at an altitude of 1500-4000 mtrs above MSL. It thrives well on warm sunny places especially in mountain slopes.
The fruits are used as a food flavourant and as a food. In Europe it is used for the preparation of alcoholic beverages. Juniper oil is used in flavouring liquors and cordial. The fruits and volatile oil possess carminative, stimulant and diuretic properties.
Indian Name of Spices
Hindi : Aaraar Sanskrit : Hapusha
Foreign Name of Spices
Arabic : Arar Chinese : Du song Czech : Jalovec French : Genevrier German : Wacholder Italian : Ginepro Spanish : Enebro/Junipero Dutch : Jeneverbes